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    What Is An Economic Trade Agreement

    The traditional economic theories, presented by Ricardo and Heckscher-Ohlin, are based on a number of important assumptions, such as perfect competition without artificial barriers imposed by governments. A second hypothesis is that production is done in decreasing or constant economies of scale, i.e. the cost of production of each additional unit is equal to or greater than production. For example, to increase his wheat crop, a farmer may be forced to use less fertile land or pay more for labour crops, thereby increasing the cost of each additional unit produced. The Doha Round would have been the world`s largest trade agreement if the United States and the EU had agreed on a reduction in their agricultural subsidies. As a result of its failure, China has gained ground on the world`s economic front through cost-effective bilateral agreements with countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. In addition, some products do not use the same production factors over their life cycle. [6] For example, when computers were first introduced, they were incredibly capital-intensive and needed a highly skilled workforce. Over time, as the volume increased, costs decreased and computers were mass-produced. In the beginning, the United States had a comparative advantage in production; but today, while computers are mass-produced by relatively unskilled labour, the comparative advantage has shifted to countries where labour is plentiful and cheap. And other products can use different production factors in different countries.

    For example, cotton production is very mechanized in the United States, but it is very laborious in Africa. The fact that the factors of production may change does not negate the comparative advantage theory; it simply means that the package of products that a nation can produce relatively effectively can change only its trading partners. Consider as a reference a free trade agreement that limits tariffs to zero and requires national treatment for consumer subsidies, but which also leaves governments completely free to choose their internal policies3. Each government leaves its local businesses free of regulation, but imposes a burden on import goods to transfer companies from abroad to the domestic market. This confirms Sykes`s (1999b) intuition that regulatory cooperation may be necessary if governments are limited in the application of their preferred protectionist instruments.4 The concept of free trade is the opposite of trade protectionism or economic isolationism. Critics of bilateral and regional approaches to trade liberalization have many additional arguments. They propose that these approaches undermine and supplant the MULTILATERAL approach of the WTO, which must be favoured for global use on a non-discriminatory basis, rather than supporting and complementing it. Therefore, the long-term outcome of bilateralism could be a deterioration of the global trading system into competing and discriminatory regional trading blocs, which could lead to additional complexity that complicates the flow of goods between countries.

    In addition, the reform of issues such as agricultural export subsidies cannot be effectively addressed at the bilateral or regional level.

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